The week in papers (22/04/18)
As a way to keep posts going, I am starting a short recap about interesting papers being published (or being discovered) every now and then. Probably I will write longer posts about some of them in the future.
Let’s get this thing going:
Two papers using ‘centroid estimation‘ to retrieve interesting information:
Impulsive Raman spectroscopy via precision measurement of frequency shift with low energy excitation
Dekel Raanan, Liqing Ren, Dan Oron, and Yaron Silberberg, at Optics Letters
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has recently become useful for chemically selective bioimaging. It is usually measured via modulation transfer from the pump beam to the Stokes beam. Impulsive stimulated Raman spectroscopy, on the other hand, relies on the spectral shift of ultrashort pulses as they propagate in a Raman active sample. This method was considered impractical with low energy pulses since the observed shifts are very small compared to the excitation pulse bandwidth, spanning many terahertz. Here we present a new apparatus, using tools borrowed from the field of precision measurement, for the detection of low-frequency Raman lines via stimulated-Raman-scattering-induced spectral shifts. This method does not require any spectral filtration and is therefore an excellent candidate to resolve low-lying Raman lines (), which are commonly masked by the strong Rayleigh scattering peak. Having the advantage of the high repetition rate of the ultrafast oscillator, we reduce the noise level by implementing a lock-in detection scheme with a wavelength shift sensitivity well below 100 fm. This is demonstrated by the measurement of low-frequency Raman lines of various liquid samples.
Machine learning keeps leaking into photonics. This time with a Compressive Sensing flavor and some holography:
An efficient deep convolutional laplacian pyramid architecture for CS reconstruction at low sampling ratios
Wenxue Cui, Heyao Xu, Xinwei Gao, Shengping Zhang, Feng Jiang, Debin Zhao, at arXiv.org
The compressed sensing (CS) has been successfully applied to image compression in the past few years as most image signals are sparse in a certain domain. Several CS reconstruction models have been proposed and obtained superior performance. However, these methods suffer from blocking artifacts or ringing effects at low sampling ratios in most cases. To address this problem, we propose a deep convolutional Laplacian Pyramid Compressed Sensing Network (LapCSNet) for CS, which consists of a sampling sub-network and a reconstruction sub-network. In the sampling sub-network, we utilize a convolutional layer to mimic the sampling operator. In contrast to the fixed sampling matrices used in traditional CS methods, the filters used in our convolutional layer are jointly optimized with the reconstruction sub-network. In the reconstruction sub-network, two branches are designed to reconstruct multi-scale residual images and muti-scale target images progressively using a Laplacian pyramid architecture. The proposed LapCSNet not only integrates multi-scale information to achieve better performance but also reduces computational cost dramatically. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of reconstructing more details and sharper edges against the state-of-the-arts methods.
Yair Rivenson, Yibo Zhang, Harun Günaydın, Da Teng & Aydogan Ozcan, at Light: Science & Applications
Phase recovery from intensity-only measurements forms the heart of coherent imaging techniques and holography. In this study, we demonstrate that a neural network can learn to perform phase recovery and holographic image reconstruction after appropriate training. This deep learning-based approach provides an entirely new framework to conduct holographic imaging by rapidly eliminating twin-image and self-interference-related spatial artifacts. This neural network-based method is fast to compute and reconstructs phase and amplitude images of the objects using only one hologram, requiring fewer measurements in addition to being computationally faster. We validated this method by reconstructing the phase and amplitude images of various samples, including blood and Pap smears and tissue sections. These results highlight that challenging problems in imaging science can be overcome through machine learning, providing new avenues to design powerful computational imaging systems.
Ghost imaging has recently been successfully achieved in the X-ray regime; due to the penetrating power of X-rays this immediately opens up the possibility of X-ray ghost tomography. No research into this topic currently exists in the literature. Here we present adaptations of conventional tomography techniques to this new ghost imaging scheme. Several numerical implementations for tomography through X-ray ghost imaging are considered. Specific attention is paid to schemes for denoising of the resulting tomographic reconstruction, issues related to dose fractionation, and considerations regarding the ensemble of illuminating masks used for ghost imaging. Each theme is explored through a series of numerical simulations, and several suggestions offered for practical realisations of X-ray ghost tomography.